How profitable is maize farming in Kenya?
This post explores how profitable is maize farming in Kenya. It will detail the money you will spend on buying seed, fertilizer and labour costs. It will also give you the profits after getting the returns for selling all your harvests.
Maize is Kenya’s main staple meal. The per capita consumption was 67.3 kg in 2019, translating to an annual demand of over 50 million bags of 90 kg. Apart from using corn as human food, it’s a source material to make alcohol and animal fodder.
However, the country’s yearly production has been less than 45 million bags shown below. They buy the rest from the East Africa Community countries of Uganda and Tanzania. Local maize production can fill the gap when it’s optimal.
Maize farming costs and profit Assumptions
- The selling price for a 90 kg bag of maize is KES 2500 in the late selling period. The price is lowest to KES 1500 in some regions during the harvest season and can rise to KES 3500 in the scarcity period.
- The analysis is for a highland zone with high rainfall and a High Altitude of 1500-2100m above sea level. Examples of these areas are Trans Nzoia, Uasin Gishu, Nakuru, Kericho, Nandi, Bungoma, Laikipia, Kisii and Narok counties.
- The highland spacing is planting one seed per hole in 75 cm by 25 cm in a land with maize only. If you inter-crop with beans, peas or cowpeas, consider two seeds per hole in a spacing of 75 cm by 50 cm.
- You will harvest 80 per cent of the yield potential for an acre.
- The analysis is for the H 6218 maize variety. Its yield potential is the highest in Kenya. It can give you 56 bags in one acre under good rainfall and crop nutrition.
Detailed profit and cost analysis
This section analyses the costs and profits for growing maize on an acre. It determines the returns by getting the product of total yields and the assumed selling price. The entire costs are your expenses on land preparation, buying farm inputs and labour costs on weed control, pest management and harvesting, among others.
Under proper crop care, one acre of maize can produce 14-56 bags in Kenya. Assuming an 80% production rate for 56 bags, you can get 40 bags. Selling each at KES 2500, you will bank make a return of KES 100,000.
Cost of production
It costs KES 48900 to grow maize on one acre in Kenya. This is for Land preparation, buying seed, weeding, disease and pest control. Others are labour, buying fertilizer, harvesting and drying maize. The rest are for transport and marketing.
You need to prepare the land in four steps for the highest harvests. Start with a soil analysis to determine the fertilizers you need to buy and apply to your farm. The market rates in Kenya go at around KES 2500. You may get cheaper or subsidized costs in some counties.
The second step is a basal application of well-decomposed manure, DAP fertilizer or HUMIPOWER. An acre needs 1 ton of compost and 36 kilograms of DAP fertilizer.
Maize requires fine tilth for ample growth. Plough the land early enough to allow solarization. If it has clods, you need harrowing before making planting holes.
The last step is making holes at a spacing of 75 cm by 25 cm or 50 cm if you practice mono-cropping or inter-cropping. It costs KES 3000 per acre to plough and harrow land in most areas.
Early planting help in getting healthy crops free of pests and disease. To make sure you do not lose planting time, seek seed early enough before the planting season. There are four types of maize varieties in Kenya: highland maize varieties, medium attitude, transitional zone and lowland varieties. To select the one suitable for your farm, use a seed selection app like the mbeguchoice.
Besides, decide if you want to plant an open-pollinated variety, a local seed or a hybrid. The highland types are H6218, H6213m H6213, H614D, H629, H624, and H517.
An acre needs 10 kg of seed. The current cost of a kg of planting seeds is around KES 180.
There are different fertilizers you can use for maximum maize yields in Kenya. As earlier stated, start with a soil test or analysis to get its pH levels and plant nutrients.
The following chart has the broad recommendation or applications doses for maize growing areas in Kenya highlands. You will therefore use 36 kg DAP and 1 ton of farmyard manure while planting. For topdressing, use 40 Kg of urea, Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) or ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN) fertilizers per acre of maize.
Excessive use of acidic fertilizers has led to extreme acidity affecting farm yields. You may need to use lime to correct its pH. Fertilizer companies in Kenya are now blending crop and regional specific fertilizers. You can use 75kg of Baraka maize planting fertilizer N:P: K 14:28:8 +S+Ca+Zn+B. To further boost your yields, you can apply a foliar feed fertilizer.
Striga weeds can cause 20 to 100% of maize losses in Kenya. Others are the couch grass and the satin tail. You can reduce weeds by chemical or manual methods. Do the first weeding within three weeks after germination. Depending on the rainfall patterns, you may need up to 3 times weeding. If you need to use herbicides, follow the recommended schedule that uses a pre-emergence herbicide followed by a post-emergence one. Once the maize reaches waist-high, spray a broad leaves herbicide to keep the rows clear.
Disease and pest Control
Some pests like Fall armyworm (FAW) and diseases like the maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) can cause up to 100 per cent crop failure. You can reduce these losses by either using pesticides or the integrated pest management (IPM) method. It promotes the use of disease or pest tolerant quality seeds, plant nutrition and crop rotation.
The major maize pests in Kenya are the FAWs, stalk borers, maize aphids, termites. Locusts, grasshoppers, white grubs and cutworms during production. The post-harvest insects include spider mites, large grain borers and grain moths. The major diseases are the MLND, maize smut, northern leaf blight, grey leaf blight and common rust and ear rots.
You will need over 40 working days to produce maize from planting to harvesting. You require it for planting, first and second weeding, stacking and harvesting. Depending on the scale of your farm, you can use machinery for some of those activities. Most times it is a negligible difference in manual or use of machines in farm operations. Using tractors for planting, weed control and or harvesting is more efficient since you can complete work in a short period.
There are many costs associated with harvesting apart from its labour. These are buying harvesting bags, transporting maize from farm to stores, shelling maize from maize combs, storing and transporting maize to the market. Others are drying it until it achieves a moisture content of less than 13%.
Gross and Net profits
The gross profit is the difference in total production costs from the gross revenue determined above. As the total cost is around KES 48,900, you will make a gross profit of KES 51,100 for growing maize on an acre. It assumes you will store maize and only sell later when prices have increased. The use of hermetic-bags is a cheap method of storing maize for a long time without using toxic preservatives.
The net profit in maize farming is after deducting other costs from the gross profit. It represents the actual money that you make for growing maize in one acre in Kenya. These include taking field surveys to observe progress, communicating with buyers and transport costs. These sum up to KES 9,700 giving you final net profits of KES 41,400.