Best indigenous vegetables for your organic farm
Though they were previously regarded as food for the poor in many communities, indigenous vegetables farming in Kenya is now a high-value chain to cater to high domestic and export market demand. The kienyeji vegetables, also known as African leafy or the traditional vegetables are sold as a packaged food in all the leading supermarkets across the country and are common stock in “mama mboga” kiosks and roadside vegetable vendors. You can tap into this ever-growing market whether you are in urban or rural farming.
Indigenous vegetables in Kenya.
Kenya has around 210 species of nutritious kienyeji vegetables. About 20 of them are popular across the entire country. others are unique in a given community. This is because of the country’s great diversity in agroecology and culture. Each of Kenya’s 55 unique tribal groups grows, buys and eat a unique set of traditional vegetables that are unknown to the rest. While this is a constraint for commercial farming, it also gives you a ready market for different vegetable types.
|Nightshade||Solamon Nigrum Complex||Managu||Osuga||–||Isoiyot|
|Spider Plant||Cleome Gyandra||Thageti||AlotDek||Chinsagga||Saget|
|Jute Mallow||Corchorus Olitorius||–||–||omotere||–|
The tables above has the most common indigenous vegetables among small scale farmers in Kenya. We have given you the English common name, the botanical name and the local names in Swahili, Luganda, Kikuyu and other common languages.
In this post, we focus on the benefits of each indigenous vegetable you can farm anywhere in Kenya. They form some of the most profitable and healthy to grow or sell.
Amaranth (Terere or mchicha)
Amaranth is considered a weed by most people. There are 70 species that thrive in the region. Its leaves can be purple, red and gold. You can grow it for leafy vegetables, cereal seeds or a flowering plant. The urban farmer can cultivate it as a protected weed in your backyard or home garden. Sow the seeds direct or transplant seedlings from nurseries. To get high terere yields consider a spacing of 20 cm by 20 cm. spacing. The vegetable is ready for harvest from 6 weeks after transplanting and the crop is 30 cm high.
There are many recipes to cook amaranth leaves. Separate the tender leaves from larger stems. Fry the leaves separately or mixed with other vegetables, meat, fish or groundnuts. Mchicha vegetables contain proteins, carbohydrates, calcium, iron and vitamins B and C.
Besides using it for human food, it is a good livestock fodder
Cowpeas leaves (Kunde)
Kunde or cowpeas vegetables in English is an indigenous legume herb. Its seed is planted at a spacing of 60 cm by 20 cm spacing. Cowpeas farming in Kenya can be intercropped with maize or sorghum in dry areas. Commercial kunde leaves farmers follow mono-cropping. It has many seed varieties like climbing and upright herbs. Its young stems, leaves, pods, fresh seeds and dried seeds are edible.
The vegetable if best in dry areas or the dry season. Most of its varieties are drought tolerant. Being a bean family plant, it has soil fertility improvement benefits through the nitrogen fixation process.
There are many varieties of managu vegetables, in English is known as nightshade, that is grown and marketed in Kenya and Uganda. You can plant quality planting seeds from an agro vet shop or source them from neighbours. You can also transplant young plants at a spacing of 30-60cm by 30-60 cm from the wild to well-tended organic plots. The plant does well in organically rich soils. You can increase yields by adding well-decomposed cattle, chicken or rabbit manure. Another trick is adding recently burnt ash. The crop requires frequent irrigation. Its tender shoots are susceptible to spider mites, early blights and aphids.
The plant leaves and fresh fruits are their edible parts. You will start harvesting around four weeks from transplanting and you can pick leaves at a weekly interval thereafter. prepare it with other vegetables like Sukuma wiki. if You prepare it alone, boil and discard the bitter water first. Ripe berries are children delicacies. The raw leaves and seeds provide vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, protein, carbohydrates and lipids.
Spider Plant (sagaa)
Best propagated through direct planting in harrowed and well-levelled seedbeds with properly applied organic manure. The small seeds are shallowly planted in around one cm depth and spacing of 30 cm between rows. You can also broadcast the seeds and rake the seedbed. The seeds germinate in 6 to 8 days and you can do thinning 20 days after. Sagaa does well in weed-free beds, hence the need for periodical weeding. In drier periods, the plants will require 2-3 time watering per week.
Harvest the thinned plants for consumption and sale. Shoots can be harvested severally till flowering and seed production. Ripe capsules are harvested and preserved to get seed for subsequent season.
The leaves are bitter and it’s mostly cooked together with cowpeas and amaranth. In western Kenya, we cook it in milk to dilute the bitter taste. Sagaa vegetable is a key traditional medicinal plant. The herb remedies include treating chest pain, constipation and diarrheic.
This leguminous perennial herb is most popular in western Kenya. You will plant “mitoo” from seeds. Does well in raised seedbeds that are well fertilised. Grown for its edible leaves that are bitter and hence well cooked in combination with other indigenous vegetables.
The plant is good in nitrogen fixation and widely promoted in crop rotation practice for sustainable climate-smart farming.
Jute Mallow (mlenda)
Best for you if you are an urban farmer in Kenyan towns below an altitude of 1500 metres above sea level. You will grow this from seeds planted in rows. To harvest, uproot the entire plant or prune branches and combine to sellable bunches. This latter method promotes Jute to produce more branches.
The vegetable is rich in protein and carbohydrates as well as vitamins B and C. when prepared on its own it is very slimy and is best cooked by combining it with the slightly hard cowpeas leaves or crotalaria.
Pumpkin leaves (malenge)
Cultivate pumpkin and the other vine vegetable types like melon, cucumbers for their nutritious leaves and fruits and seeds. The pumpkin varieties are “vine” plants whose running and bristled stems with big deep lobed leaves. It flowers yellow or orange.
Its young tender leaves are the most utilised. Remove the tough skin and leaf veins. They are then washed, chopped, and either boiled, steamed or/and fried. Other vegetables in the pumpkin leaves category are cucumbers, watermelons and “kahurura”
Comfrey Leaves (Mabaki)
Mabaki vegetables or Comfrey leaves in English is one of the most important Kikuyu traditional vegetables. It’s use date back more than 2,000 years where it was used as a healing herb. You can use its leaves and roots to treat burns, sprains, swellings and bruises. But observe caution not to apply it to open wounds and broken leaves. Other claimed benefits of using Comfrey or mabaki leaves are that it can heal gastric ulcers and haemorrhoids, suppress bronchial congestion and inflammation.
In the region, people mostly mix it with other leafy vegetables to make “mukimo” a local recipe of mashed potatoes, green maize, and beans.
Less popular indigenous vegetables in Kenya
Apart from the above-listed vegetables, small scale farmers also use leaves from other crops like cassava, sweet potato, Irish potatoes, bean leaves and melon. Other types are more localized in specific communities and consumption has not spread in another area. These include the stinging nettle or thabai (Urtica massaica), Ethiopian mustard (Kanzira), moringa, mchunga in English known as Launaea cornuta, blackjack and African eggplant.
Recipes, preservation and preparation
African leafy vegetables are cooked separately or mixed with other indigenous vegetables. In most communities, the plant leaves are harvested and removed from leaf stalks. Wash these in clean water and sometimes slice them into small leaves. Some people boil the leaves and discard the leaves while others prepare them directly. To fully prepare, fry onions till brown, add tomatoes and then vegetables for not less than five minutes. Stir the vegetables occasionally till ready.
Most indigenous vegetable types featured in this post can be sun-dried for preservation. Though this means some loss in nutritional value, it’s a key method to ensure a reliable supply of green vegetables and nutrients during drought. This is a chance for agribusinesses to venture into food processing, packaging and distribution to create income and employment.
Why you should grow kienyeji vegetables?
Farming “Mboga kienyeji” as they are commonly referred to has many benefits. It contributes to nutrition safety, environmental benefits, income generation and African traditional medicine among other benefits. We briefly explore these benefits.
Food security; Traditional vegetables have higher nutritional value than most exotic vegetables. The table below compares the nutritional value of 100gm of edible cabbage with the 3 most common traditional vegetables; amaranth, spider plant and African nightshade.
|Nutrient||Amaranth||Spider plant||African Nightshade||Cabbage|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) (milligram)||64||13||20||54|
|*B- Carotene (microgram)||5716||10452||3660||100|
|Thiamine (vitamin B1) (milligram)||0.05||0.04|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) (milligram)||0.42||0.59||0.1|
You should not only grow these vegetables for the market but also as nutritious food for your family.
Food safety; Indigenous vegetable farming is majorly organic, unlike exotic vegetable farming. The majority of them are considered wild or weeds in other high-value crop farms like Sukuma wiki farms. You do not have to spray toxic farm chemicals and fertilizers to get high yields. By using kienyeji vegetables you will cut down the intake of harmful toxins that can make you sick.
Ready market; Over 30 % of Kenya’s population lives in urban centres. This opens a unique domestic market for people in those towns. The majority prefer kienyeji vegetables for they are health-conscious and hence prefer organically grown and medicinal vegetables and herbs. It is most common among people suffering from stomach ulcers and cannot eat acidic Sukuma wiki, diabetes and hypertension.
Income generation; As neglected crops, growing, picking and marketing of the local vegetables is a preserve for women. This makes it a good entrepreneurial venture for ladies and youth. Traditional vegetables can be grown under irrigation during the dry season and be sundried in solar dryers, packaged and marketed as ground powder or dried vegetables
Growing demand; There is intense sensitization on production, processing, marketing and consumption of African leafy vegetables by national and county governments, donors, NGOs and other stakeholders. We see these speciality crops as a tool for nutritional, health and economic improvement for vulnerable people such as PLWHAs, women and young people.
Environmental benefits; Some indigenous vegetables like cowpeas are legumes that help in soil nitrogen fixation. This help to improve soil health and the environment.
Short term to maturity; Some traditional vegetables are harvested as early as 3 weeks after planting or transplanting. This allows you to enjoy nutritious food and make easy money in dry periods.
Medicinal value; Indigenous African leafy vegetables possess anti-oxidative properties and thus have the potential as natural sources for reducing cellular oxidative damage, and suppression of various cancers and cardiovascular diseases.